Observation and experimentation are the two characteristic features of science. Prior to Galileo, scientists based their theories on speculation and aesthetic preferences. He broke away from this tradition. Ever since, it has become a standard method of science to accept theoretical predictions only if repeated observations and precise measurements provide enough evidence. Indeed as Lord Kelvin so aptly put it. "When you can measure what you are speaking about and express it in numbers, you know something about it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meager and unsatisfactory kind."
As a student of science in IGNOU, and particularly physics, you must aim to be a skilled observer and experimentalist. BPHL-103 is the first laboratory course in physics. This course should enable you to:
- Gain experience in the scientific method viz. taking unbiased observation, interpreting and analyzing data and deriving conclusions
- Acquire basic skill in using different measuring instruments
- Learn some standard techniques for the measurements of various physical quantities.
To achieve these objectives, preset and open-ended experiments have been designed for this course. These experiments pertain to oscillations, waves and mechanical and electrical properties of materials.
As you work through this course, you will realise that a lot of good physics can be learnt through simple experimental arrangements.
Syllabus Per Block Divisions in IGNOU BSc Physics - Physics Laboratory-I BPHL-103
Block 1: Some Experiments on Oscillation and Waves
- Unit I: Measurement
- Unit II: Error Analysis
- Experiment 1: Dependence of the Period of a Pendulum on Length, Amplitude and Mass
- Experiment 2: Oscillations of a Spring-Mass System and a Torsional Pendulum
- Experiment 3: A Study of Energy and Momentum Conservation Principles
- Experiment 4: Relation between Wavelength and Frequency of Stationary Waves
- Experiment 5: Determination of Young's Modulus of a Material by Bending of Beams
Block 2: Experiments with Electrical and Electronic Circuits
- Experiment 6: Measurement of Low Resistance using Carey Foster's Bridge
- Experiment 7: Variation of Thermo-EMF with Temperature
- Experiment 8: Frequency Response of AC Circuits
- Experiment 9: Experiments using Semiconductor Diodes
- Experiment 10: A Study of Transistor Characteristics
- Experiment 11: Measurements with a Cathode Ray Oscilloscope